Stoichiometry  IB Syllabus > Stoichiometry > Moles 

Mole concept & Avogadro's constant1.1.1: Describe the mole concept and apply it to substances. The mole concept applies to all kinds of particles: atoms, molecules, ions, formula units etc. The amount of substance is measured in units of moles. The approximate value of Avogadro's constant (L), 6.02 x 10^{23} mol^{1}, should be known. The structure of matter It is now accepted that matter in all its forms is made up of indivisible particles that themselves have mass. These particles are called atoms, molecules and ions. The nature of the substance is dictated by the atoms elements that have bonded together to make the bulk substance. This may be an ionic structure, a covalent structre or a metallic structure. 
Giant ionic structure  giant covalent structure  simple covalent  giant metallic structure 
Molecules are made up of two or more atoms chemically bonded together.
Ions are specialised atoms or groups of atoms chemically combined together that have lost or gained electrons and posess an overall electrical charge.
The fundamental particle that is the building block of matter is therefore the atom. There are about 90 naturally occuring types of atoms each with a different arrangement of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons) and consequently different masses.
The structure of matter is one of the following:
The masses that are measured in the laboratory are masses corresponding to vast numbers of tiny atoms or molecules. Logically atoms that are heavier will register larger masses for equal numbers of atoms.
Relative atomic mass
If one carbon atom has a mass of 12 atomic mass units and one magnesium atom has a mass of 24 atomic mass units, then as a magnesium atom is twice as heavy as a carbon atom it follows that this ratio will be maintained for any number of atoms.
On the atomic mass scale the carbon 12 isotope is designated a value of 12 atomic mass units and all other masses are measured relative to this (relative atomic mass)
The mole concept
It is convenient to consider the number of atoms needed to make 12g of carbon and for this number to be given a name  one mole of carbon atoms. This allows us to talk about relative quantities of substances in the macroscopic world and to know the relative number of atoms (or smallest particles) in each bulk substance.
The actual number of atoms that is needed to give the relative atomic mass expressed in grams is called Avogadro's number (symbol L)
Avogadro's number = 6,02 x 10^{23}
Definition of a mole
There are two useful definitions.
Example 1: one mole of carbon = 12 g magnesium atoms are twice as heavy as carbon atoms therefore 1 mole of magnesium = 24g Example 2. equal masses of carbon and magnesium contain different numbers of atoms. 6g of carbon contains 6/12 moles of carbon =0,5 moles 6g of magnesium contains 6/24 moles of magnesium =0,25 moles 
Example: Sodium carbonate crystals (27.8230g) were dissolved in water and made up to 1.00 dm3. 25.0 cm3 of the solution were neutralised by 48.8 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of conc 0.100 mol dm3. Find n in the formula Na_{2}CO_{3}.nH_{2}O 48.8 cm3 of 0.1M HCl = 0.00488moles Na2CO3 + 2HCl > NaCl + CO2 + H_{2}O therefore moles of Na2CO3 = 0.00488/2 = 0.00244moles This is in 25cm3 therefore the moles in 1000cm3 = 0.00244/0.025 =0.0976moles If the formula = Na_{2}CO_{3}.nH_{2}O Then the neutralisation has measured only the Na2CO3 Therefore the mass of Na_{2}CO_{3} = RMM x no of moles = 106 x 0.0976 = 10.3456g The remaining mass must be due to water = 27.823  10.3456 = 17.4774g RMM of water = 18 therefore this is equivalent to 17.4774/18 moles = 0.971 Thuus the mole ratio of Na_{2}CO_{3} to water in the original compound = 0.096 : 0.971 or approximately 1 :10 The formula is therefore Na_{2}CO_{3}.10H_{2}O 
Example 3. How many atoms are ther in 24g carbon 24g of carbon = 24/12 moles = 2 moles 1 mole of atoms = 6,02 x 10^{23} therefore 2 moles of carbon contains 2 x 6,02 x 10^{23} atoms = 1,204 x 10^{24} atoms 
1.1.2: Calculate the number of particles and the amount of substance (in moles). Convert between the amount of substance (in moles) and the number of atoms, molecules or formula units
1 mole = 6.02 x 10^{23} formula units of that substance.
We can also talk about the atoms within molecules.
For example 1 mole of water contains 2 moles of hydrogen atoms and 1 mole of oxyten atoms. It is a simple matter of multiplying the moles of the compound by the atoms or ions that make it up.
Resources
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