Nature of science: Making quantitative measurements with replicates to ensure reliability - definite and multiple proportions. (3.1)
Essential idea: Physical and chemical properties depend on the ways in which different atoms combine.
Atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds, which have different properties from their component elements. Mixtures contain more than one element and/or compound that are not chemically bonded together and so retain their individual properties.
Mixtures are either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Deduction of chemical equations when reactants and products are specified.
Application of the state symbols (s), (l), (g) and (aq) in equations.
Explanation of observable changes in physical properties and temperature during changes of state.
Balancing of equations should include a variety of types of reactions.
Names of the changes of state-melting, freezing, vaporization (evaporation and boiling), condensation, sublimation and deposition-should be covered.
The term "latent heat" is not required.
Names and symbols of elements are in the data booklet in section 5.
Chemical symbols and equations are international, enabling effective communication amongst scientists without need for translation.
IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is the world authority in developing standardized nomenclature for both organic and inorganic compounds.
Chemical equations are the "language" of chemistry. How does the use of universal languages help and hinder the pursuit of knowledge?
Lavoisier's discovery of oxygen, which overturned the phlogiston theory of combustion, is an example of a paradigm shift. How does scientific knowledge progress?
Refrigeration and how it is related to the changes of state.
Freeze-drying of foods.
Topic 4.1-deduction of formulae of ionic compounds
Topic 5.1-enthalpy cycle reaction; standard state of an element or compound
Topic 6.1-kinetic theory
Topic 8.2-neutralization reactions
Topic 10.2-combustion reactions
Option A.4-liquid crystals
Aim 8: The negative environmental impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning systems are significant. The use of CFCs as refrigerants has been a major contributor to ozone depletion