Topic 8 Acids and bases - 8.2 Properties of acids and bases

Nature of science: Obtaining evidence for theories-observable properties of acids and bases have led to the modification of acid-base theories. (1.9)


Most acids have observable characteristic chemical reactions with reactive metals, metal oxides, metal hydroxides, hydrogen carbonates and carbonates.

Salt and water are produced in exothermic neutralization reactions.

Applications and skills

Balancing chemical equations for the reaction of acids.

Identification of the acid and base needed to make different salts.

Candidates should have experience of acid-base titrations with different indicators.


Bases which are not hydroxides, such as ammonia, soluble carbonates and hydrogen carbonates should be covered.

The colour changes of different indicators are given in the data booklet in section 22