IB Chemistry - Bonding

IB Chemistry home > Syllabus 2025 > Structure and bonding > From models to materials

Materials science involves understanding the properties of a material, and then applying those properties to desired structures. Human beings have been using materials to enhance their life experience since time immemorial. Nowadays our understanding of structure allows the development of more sofisticated materials designed to better suit specific purposes. Novel materials include composites, ceramics, graphene, etc.

This next section examines how the models of bonding can be adapted to incorporate novel materials.

Syllabus reference

Structure 2.4.1 - Bonding is best described as a continuum between the ionic, covalent and metallic models, and can be represented by a bonding triangle.

  • Use bonding models to explain the properties of a material.


  • A triangular bonding diagram is provided in the data booklet.

Tools and links

  • Structure 3.1 - How do the trends in properties of period 3 oxides reflect the trend in their bonding?
  • Nature of science, Structures 2.1, 2.2 - What are the limitations of discrete bonding categories?

In Chapter 2.8